New report examines interconnectedness between GCED professionals.

The report “Europe and North America Regional GCED Network” is based on a research project funded by Asia-Pacific Centre of Education for International Understanding (APCEIU) and Ban Ki-moon Centre for Global Citizens (BKMC), led by ANGEL coordinator Massimiliano Tarozzi (International Research Centre on Global Citizenship Education, University of Bologna) and member Lynette Shultz (Centre for Global Citizenship Education and Research, University of Alberta) as Principal Investigators.

The research team was composed of Carrie Karsgaard and Carla Inguaggiato, with the support of Kester Muller and Francis Owusu.


This study addresses an important gap in GCED research by exploring how GCED is constructed and moves across networks of actors, including governments, NGOs, researchers, and educational institutions, among others. 

While in recent years some research has explored the role of both offline and digital networks (Twitter in particular) in shaping educational policy, this is the first study to apply social network analysis to GCED educational policy and practice.



  • Chapter 1: Exploring Global Citizenship Education (GCED) Through Social Network Analysis (SNA), reviews relevant literature in GCED, and presents three categories of GCED definitions – neoliberal, liberal and critical.
  • Chapter 2: Research Design and Methodological Procedures, provides an introduction to the research design and methodological procedures: SNA and digital methods.
  • Chapter 3: Social Network Analysis Results, presents the main results of the SNA study, describing global and local patterns of the networks and the main characteristics of the sample, as well as GCED conceptualizations in relation to participant organizations.
  • Chapter 4: GCED Crawling Across EUNA, explores networked relationships using data available on organizational websites and on Twitter. 
  • The Conclusion provides a summary of findings and a set of recommendations that will inform the work of global citizenship education policy, educational practices in formal and non-formal education organizations, and further research. 


ANGEL Network,
Development Education Research Centre (DERC)
UCL Institute of Education
20 Bedford Way
London WC1H 0AL

Partner organisations

Carousel image attribution: "panoramio (2525)" by William “Patrick” Ma. Under CC 3.0

The establishment of this network and website has been made possible with funding support from the European Commission.
The activities and publications of the network are the responsibilities of the organisers, the Development Education Research Centre, and can in no way be seen as reflecting the views of the European Commission.